How was England's defeat of the Spanish Armada under Elizabeth I a defining moment in the country's history?

The fear of invasion by Spain remained high in England, especially with the action taking place so close to England's shores. As a result, the ageing Robert Dudley was put in charge of the land army at Tilbury, on the Thames, to the east of London in Essex. He arranged for Queen Elizabeth to visit Tilbury to announce his appointment and rally the troops.

The Queen’s speech

Elizabeth joined the defenders of her realm as they prepared for battle against Spain once again. Her address is considered one of the finest motivational speeches in history.

In her opening lines Elizabeth told the troops how she had been discouraged from appearing among them in light of threats to her life. She continued to assert her belief in the love and loyalty of her people and went on to make a full and final commitment to the soldiers, and thus the nation, to share their fate, 'to live and die amongst you all'.

This emotive opening was followed by righteous indignation, outrage and a call to arms. Elizabeth explained that although she is a woman, and England a small nation facing the might of the world's superpower, she will not shy away from her responsibilities and will personally command the situation.

As a woman Elizabeth could not lead her forces into battle, so she introduced Dudley as her deputy and endorsed and empowered him with a vote of confidence. She also used the speech to motivate the troops by letting them know that they had already done a good job and that she would personally see that they were rewarded for their service. Finally, she confirmed her belief in them, and that through their continued excellence and commitment, England would triumph.

Perfectly pitched

Elizabeth's performance at Tilbury displayed her command of spectacle and mastery of the spoken word. Her awareness of being seen on the front line to communicate her vision and commitment was also admired. This iconic speech played into the Arthurian chivalric fantasy of soldiers as knights going out to fight for their lady, and called on the patriotism of the soldiers to do their best for God, Queen and country. All of this came together in the icon that was Elizabeth.

The Queen also let her troops know that they were in this together. While she was the leader of the nation, she was not above it, and would share its fate. This identification with, and commitment to her people, was one of Elizabeth's greatest assets and was a recurring theme throughout her reign. From the very beginning she promised to govern by 'good advice and counsel' and continually sought to reassure and be loved by her subjects.

Celebrating success

The defeat of the Spanish Armada brought fame, both for England and Queen Elizabeth I. Europe was stunned that such a small island nation had successfully defended itself against such a giant aggressor.

While the war with Spain would continue until 1604, the outcome was no longer taken for granted and foreign diplomats began to court England as a possible ally. Elizabeth's popularity soared and she became a legend throughout Europe. The impact of the victory for the nation's self-confidence cannot be overestimated.

England’s success was celebrated in all manners of ways. Songs were written, medals struck, portraits painted and prints published. All lauded Elizabeth as a saviour who stood firm to protect her nation, shared the glory of the success with the English navy and gave thanks for divine intervention, 'God breathed and they were scattered'.

The Armada portrait of Elizabeth I

The most famous visual expression of the Spanish Armada is The Armada portrait of Elizabeth I (c. 1588). Although there are several versions of the painting, each one shows Elizabeth flanked by scenes of the defining acts that thwarted Spain’s invasion. On the left of the painting is England’s fleet watching the attack of their fireships, and on the right the Armada is being wrecked in storms on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. In the centre is Elizabeth in all her glory, with her hand hovering over America on a globe. She is portrayed as living embodiment of England’s triumph and its imperial ambition.

A true icon

Elizabeth's successful identification of herself with her island nation, standing forth with resolve against a powerful aggressor, saw her image as being called upon in other times of national crisis, including the Napoleonic wars and the Blitz.

The victory over Spain was not just Elizabeth's finest hour but also a defining moment in English history, marking the threshold on which the small island nation, with negligible power, started on its way to becoming a major player on the world stage.

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