For over 300 years explorers risked their lives to search the Arctic for a North-West Passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.
Explorers searching for the Passage were hoping to establish a lucrative trading route between Europe and Asia. The aim was to shorten the time and cost of sailing to and from markets such as India and China.
Trapped by ice
By the 19th century, explorers had found their way into the Canadian Archipelago, the island-strewn waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific. The greatest challenge was sea-ice, which blocked the channels between the islands during winter and remained frozen in bad summers. It could damage or crush ships. Explorers could die of starvation if their ships were stuck in ice for several years.
Scurvy, consumption and cannibalism were just some of the risks of going in search of a North-West Passage.
Nevertheless, the quest successfully to navigate the North-West Passage attracted a number of explorers. The tales of these men are of hardship and tragedy but also triumph, endurance, and ultimately success, after four centuries of exploration.
Martin Frobisher was the first Englishman to go in search of the North-West Passage in 1576. Five of his men were kidnapped on the voyage and were never seen again.
Captain James Cook's final exploratory expedition was in search of the North-West Passage. It was to be his last-ever voyage as he was killed in Hawaii before returning home.
On John Franklin’s first expedition to search for the passage (1819–22), one of his men was accused of cannibalism as they travelled overland to look for supplies. His third and final attempt would claim the lives of all 129 crewmen.
Robert McClure is credited as being the first explorer to navigate the North-West Passage by sea and ice, after surviving four perilous winters in the Arctic.
Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was the first person successfully to navigate the North-West Passage by small boat in 1905.
The explorers’ legacy
Until recently the discoveries of the North-West Passage explorers seemed of no commercial value and heroes of Antarctica, like Scott and Shackleton, overshadowed their reputations. While the search for the passage was celebrated at the time of the expeditions, the fame of many voyagers has since faded.
Today, global warming means the North-West Passage is now sufficiently ice-free for ships to pass through. Although the route still remains hazardous, owing to shifting ice, it is accessible to commercial shipping, shaving hundreds of miles off sailing routes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The fact that the route is still perilous today puts into perspective just how heroic the original North-West Passage explorers were.
Find out more:
- Global warming and the science of Arctic melting
- The earliest English search for the North-West Passage
- Roald Amundsen's successful navigation of the North-West Passage
Death in the ice - Franklin exhibition opens 14 July 2017
Discover the shocking story of Franklin’s final expedition at the National Maritime Museum’s major new exhibition exploring this unsolved mystery.
In 2014, the wreck of HMS Erebus was discovered off the coast of Canada, followed by the discovery of HMS Terror in 2016.
As Parks Canada’s Underwater Archaeology Team starts to bring to light the ships and their contents, Death in the ice will see some of their discoveries – including personal items, clothing and components of the ships – displayed in Britain for the first time.
Read through 400 years of searches
- Martin Frobisher (1576-78) - the first to go in search of a North-West Passage
- John Davis (1585-87) - this explorer also invented the Davis quadrant that helped sailors find their latitude
- Henry Hudson (1610-11) - third British explorer caused a mutiny and was cut adrift never to be seen again!
- Thomas Button (1612-13)
- William Baffin (1615-16)
- Jens Munk (1619-20) - another horrific expedition, only 3 crewmen survived
- Luke Fox (1631)
- Thomas James (1631-32)
- James Knight (1715-19) - the first attempt in 80 years also ended in disaster
- Christopher Middleton (1741-42) - this expedition led to a bitter dispute
- William Moor (1741-42)
- Samuel Hearne (1770-72) - this overland expedition was of major importance to the search
- James Cook (1776-78) one of most celebrated British navigators came out of retirement for the search, but he would not see England again:
- John Ross (1818) - this abandonned journey caused much controversy
- William Edward Parry (1819-20) - a key figure in the discovery of the north west passage
- William Edward Parry (1821-25)
- John Franklin (1819-27)
- John Ross (1829-33) - his second attempt saw him spend four winters in the Arctic
- John Franklin (1845) - the infamous expedition that ended in disaster for entire crew
- Robert McClure (1850-54) - the first to navigate the North-West passage although mostly over ice rather than water
- Roald Amundsen (1903-06) - at last, success!