Handy tables of orbits, mass, rotation periods and tilts for the planets and their moons in the Solar System.

## The orbits of the planets

 Name Sidereal Period Perihelion (AU) Aphelion (AU) Inclination (degrees) Mercury 87.97d 0.31 0.47 7.0 Venus 224.70d 0.72 0.73 3.4 Earth 365.26d 0.98 1.02 0.0 Mars 686.98d 1.38 1.67 1.8 Jupiter 11.86y 4.95 5.45 1.3 Saturn 29.46y 9.01 10.07 2.5 Uranus 84.01y 18.28 20.09 0.8 Neptune 164.79y 29.80 30.32 1.8

The Sidereal Period is the time taken by the planet to return to the same place in its orbit, relative to the stars.

Perihelion and Aphelion are the planet's closest and furthest distances from the Sun, measured in Astronomical Units (AU). 1 AU is defined by the average distance from the Earth to the Sun.

## The globes of the planets

 Name Equatorial Diameter (km) Oblateness Mass (Earth=1) Rotation Period Tilt (degrees) Mercury 4878 0.0 0.06 58.65d 7 Venus 12,100 0.0 0.82 243d 177 Earth 12,756 0.0034 1.00 23.934h 23 Mars 6794 0.005 0.11 24.623h 25 Jupiter 142,800 0.065 317.89 9.842h 3 Saturn 120,000 0.108 95.17 10.233h 27 Uranus 52,400 0.03 14.56 16-28h 98 Neptune 48,400 0.02 17.24 18-20h 30 Pluto 2445 0.0 0.002 6.39d 118?

Oblateness is a measure of how the planet's figure departs from a sphere.

The Rotation Period for each planet is the period relative to the stars. This is slightly different from the period relative to the Sun, which for the Earth we call the day.

For two of the planets, Venus and Uranus, the inclination of the rotation axis is large and the planets (and Uranus's satellites) rotate in the reverse sense to that of their orbits. Otherwise, all the planets, their satellites (and the Sun) rotate and move around the Sun with the same sense of rotation.

## Satellites

 Planet Satellite Mean Distance (103 km) Mean Period (days) Diameter (km) Earth Moon 384 27.322 3,476 Mars I Phobos 9.38 0.319 28, 22, 18 II Deimos 23.46 1.262 16, 12, 10 Jupiter XVI Metis 127.96 0.295 40 XV Adrastea 128.98 0.298 24, 20, 16 V Amalthea 181.3 0.498 270, 170, 150 XIV Thebe 221.9 0.675 110,90 I Io 421.6 1.769 3,652 II Europa 670.9 3.551 3,138 III Ganymede 1,070 7.155 5,262 IV Callisto 1,880 16.689 4,800 XIII Leda 11,094 238.7 10 VI Himalia 11,480 250.6 180 X Lysithia 11,720 259.2 20 VII Elara 11,737 259.7 80 XII Ananke 21,200 631 20 XI Carme 22,600 692 30 VIII Pasiphae 23,500 735 40 IX Sinope 23,700 758 30 Saturn XV Atlas 137.67 0.602 38, 26 XVI Prometheus 139.35 0.613 140, 100, 74 XVII Pandora 141.70 0.629 110, 84, 66 X Janus 151.47 0.695 220, 190, 160 XI Epimetheus 151.42 0.694 140, 114, 100 I Mimus 185.54 0.942 392 II Enceladus 238.04 1.370 500 III Tethys 294.67 1.888 1,060 XIII Telesto 294.67 1.888 24, 22 XIV Calypso 294.67 1.888 30, 24, 16 IV Dione 377.42 2.737 1,120 XII Helene 377.42 2.737 36, V Rhea 527.04 4.518 1,530 VI Titan 1,221.86 15.495 5,150 VII Hyperion 1,481.1 21.277 350, 234, 200 VIII Iapetus 3561.3 79.331 1,460 IX Pheobe 12,954 550.4 220 Uranus VI Cordelia 49.8 0.335 15 VII Ophelia 53.8 0.376 20 VIII Bianca 59.1 0.433 50 IX Cressida 61.75 0.463 70 X Desdemona 62.7 0.475 50 XI Juliet 64.35 0.493 70 XII Portia 66.09 0.513 90 XIII Rosalind 69.92 0.558 50 XIV Belinda 75.3 0.622 50 XV Puck 86.01 0.762 170 V Miranda 129.4 1.414 480 I Ariel 191.0 2.520 1,170 II Umbriel 266.3 4.144 1,190 III Titania 435.9 8.706 1,560 IV Oberon 583.5 13.463 1,550 Neptune III Naiad 48.2 0.30 50 IV Thalassa 50.0 0.31 90 V Despina 52.5 0.33 140 VI Galatea 62.0 0.43 160 VII Larissa 73.6 0.55 200 VIII Proteus 117.6 1.12 420 I Triton 354.8 5.877 3,500 II Nereid 5,510 360.21 400 Pluto I Charon 19.7 6.387

## Notes

• Apart from the following the orbital planes of all satellites are within 5 degrees of that of their primary.
• The Moon is between 18-28 degrees.
• Jupiter XIII,VI,X and VII are at about 28 degrees. XII, XI, VIII and IX are at about 150 degrees.
• Saturn VIII is at 15 degrees and IX is at 175.
• Uranus I is at 159 degrees and II is at 28.
• Pluto I is at 99 degrees.
• The Rings of Saturn have diameters from 134000km to 480000km. The rings about the other planets are not visible from Earth.
• Where several values are given for the diameter, this indicates that the satellite is markedly non-spherical. The numbers represent diameters along perpendicular axes.

The periods given are sidereal periods of rotation about the planet. The mean distances are given in thousands of kilometres.