The Spanish Armada led by King Philip II of Spain attempted to invade England in 1588, to avenge the death of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587.

The spanish armarda was launched in August 1588, ‘la felicissima armada’, or ‘the most fortunate fleet’ was made up of 150 ships, mainly Spanish, with some from Portugal and Naples. At the time, it was the largest fleet ever seen in Europe and Philip II of Spain considered it invincible. The Spanish Armada famously tried, and failed, to invade England in 1588.

Why did Philip II want to invade England?

Philip II wanted to invade England to avenge the country for its execution of Mary Queen of Scots – Spain’s Catholic ally – in 1587. This marked the turning point in years of dispute and religious differences between Catholic Spain and Protestant England. The Spanish also saw England as a competitor in trade and expansion in the ‘New World’ of the Americas.

In 1588, Philip II intended to sail with his navy and army, a total of around 30,000 men, up the English Channel to link up with the forces led by the Duke of Parma in the Spanish Netherlands. From there they would invade England and bring the country under the Catholic rule of Spain.

How did the campaign begin?

According to legend, Sir Francis Drake, one of Queen Elizabeth I’s most famous sea captains, was first told of the sighting of the Armada while playing bowls on Plymouth Hoe, but answered that ‘there is plenty of time to finish the game and beat the Spaniards’, but there is no reliable evidence for this. The Spanish fleet kept a strict crescent formation, which the English realised would be very difficult to break. Their only chance was to get the wind behind them and try and attack any stragglers.

The English ships were longer, lower and faster than before. The castles fore and aft had been lowered to give greater stability, and this meant more guns could be carried to fire lethal broadsides. The ships were also more manoueverable than the heavy Spanish vessels.

What happened when the Armada attacked?

The commander of the Armada was the Duke of Medina Sidonia. The Duke had set out on the enterprise with some reluctance, as he was aware of the superiority of English ships, but hoped he would be able to join with the forces of the Duke of Parma in the Netherlands and have safe deep anchorage for his fleet before the invasion of England. To his dismay this did not happen.

The Spaniards kept their crescent formation up the Channel with great discipline but two great ships were accidentally put out of action. The Rosario collided with another ship, was disabled and captured by Drake, while the San Salvador blew up with tremendous loss of life. The two fleets skirted round each other up the Channel with neither gaining advantage.

Did the English set some of its own ships alight?

Yes, once the Armada had anchored off Calais, the English decided to send in eight fireships. At midnight, when the fireships approached with the wind, the Spanish cut their anchor cables ready for flight. In the darkness many ships collided with each other as the Armada scattered, but none were set on fire.

Next morning, there was the fiercest fighting of the whole Armada campaign during the Battle of Gravelines. By evening, the wind was strong and the Spanish expected a further attack at dawn, but as both sides were out of ammunition none came. That afternoon the wind changed and the Spanish ships were blown off the sandbanks, towards the North Sea. With no support from the Duke of Parma, Medina Sidonia's aim was to bring the remains of the Armada back to Spain.

How did the Spanish Armada fail?

Many ships were wrecked off the rocky coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Of the 150 ships that set out, 65 returned to Lisbon. The following year, Philip sent another smaller fleet of about a 100 ships. This ran into stormy weather off Cornwall and blown back to Spain. It was not until the reign of James I (ruler of Scotland and England 1603–1625) that peace was finally made between the two countries.

The Armada Portrait 

Recently saved for the nation, the Armada Portrait commemorates the most famous conflict of Elizabeth I's reign – the failed invasion of England by the Spanish Armada in summer 1588. This iconic portrait is now back on public display in the Queen's House after careful conservation.

Find out more and visit The Armada Portrait

Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I