Caroline discovered eight comets, revised Flamsteed's Star Catalogue, and became the first paid female astronomer in history.
Who was Caroline Herschel?
Caroline spent her youth in Hanover performing chores for her demanding mother, but crossed the Channel in 1772 and sang as a premier soloist in her brother William's concerts in Bath only six years later. Their musical life changed dramatically as William's obsession with his new hobby - astronomy - took over. After William's groundbreaking discovery of Uranus, he gave up music and moved near Windsor to act as astronomer to the Royal Family under the patronage of King George III - and, Caroline wrote, she 'found [she] was to be trained for an assistant Astronomer'.
Caroline at Greenwich
Over time, Caroline discovered comets - eight in total. Understanding the importance of speedy communication, when she spotted her final comet in 1797, she rode nearly 30 miles to our observatory in Greenwich to tell the Astronomer Royal, Nevil Maskelyne. She also completed the laborious, mundane, but essential task of checking, calculating, correcting, and updating the catalogue of nearly 3,000 stars observed by John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal.
In 1787 King George III granted Caroline a £50 salary as William's assistant, making her the first female in Britain to earn an income for the pursuit of science as well as the first women ever to earn a living from astronomy. She received many accolades for her discoveries, including a Gold Medal and Honorary Membership of the Royal Astronomical Society, Honorary Membership of the Royal Irish Academy, and the Gold Medal of Science from the King of Prussia.
The text for this post was drawn from the booklet 'Women, Astronomy & Greenwich' written for the Royal Observatory Greenwich by author Kelley Swain.