The three surviving versions of the iconic Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I are to go on public display together in a free exhibition at the Queen’s House in Greenwich (13 February 2020 until 31 August 2020). The exhibition, entitled Faces of a Queen: The Armada Portraits of Elizabeth I, is the first time the paintings have been displayed together in their 430-year history.

One of the most iconic images in British history, the Armada Portrait commemorates the most famous conflict in Elizabeth’s reign, the Spanish Armada’s failed attempt to invade England in 1588. Royal Museums Greenwich (RMG) will showcase its own version of the Armada Portrait - which was saved for the nation in 2016 following a major public appeal with Art Fund and funding from the National Lottery - alongside the two other surviving versions, from the collections of Woburn Abbey and the National Portrait Gallery (NPG).


All three versions of the Armada Portrait are believed to have been painted shortly after the event, circa 1588. Whilst copies and derivatives of the portrait pattern have been made over the centuries, the three portraits that will be united at the Queen’s House are the only contemporary versions in existence and the only three featuring seascapes that depict episodes from the Spanish Armada in the background.


The paintings have only ever been brought together before for technical research and conservation purposes, therefore this historic exhibition presents an unprecedented opportunity for visitors to come face-to-face with three of the most iconic depictions of Elizabeth I. The once-in-a-generation event has been made possible due to the generous loans from both the National Portrait Gallery and The Duke and Duchess of Bedford, who are lending the Armada Portrait from their private collection whilst Woburn Abbey undergoes a major refurbishment.


The portraits will be united on public display in the Queen’s House, part of Royal Museums Greenwich. The 17th century Palladian villa, designed by Inigo Jones, is a significant location for the exhibition, situated on the site of the original Greenwich Palace complex, which was a major political and symbolic centre for the Tudor dynasty and the birthplace of Elizabeth I herself. Several significant moments in Elizabeth’s reign are also known to have taken place at Greenwich, including the Queen witnessing the return of Sir Francis Drake from his circumnavigation of the globe, and her signing of the order to execute Mary, Queen of Scots 'from Greenwich, in haste'.


In all three versions of the iconic portrait, the dominating figure of the Queen is shown three-quarter length, in a rich gold-embroidered and jewelled dress, as the epitome of regal magnificence. Behind her are two seascapes, depicting different episodes in the Spanish Armada narrative. In both the RMG and Woburn Abbey versions, Elizabeth I’s right hand is resting on a globe showing the Americas, an imperial covered crown on the table behind, a fan made of ostrich feathers in her left hand, and beside her a chair of state. This detail is absent from the National Portrait Gallery version, as this picture, previously a similar format to the other two more horizontal pictures, has been cut down, also truncating the seascapes in the background. Both the date of when this alteration occurred and the reasons behind it remain unknown.


The Armada Portrait composition is a prime example of how portraiture was used to control the public image of Elizabeth I, presenting her as a powerful, authoritative and majestic figure. She gave very few portrait sittings, and instead pre-approved patterns or portrait designs were circulated for reproduction by multiple studios to keep up with the demand for images of the Queen. Once attributed to the Queen’s Sergeant-Painter, George Gower, some experts have suggested that three different artists or studios could be responsible for the three principal Armada Portraits. By displaying the Armada Portraits together in Greenwich, scholars will have an unparalleled opportunity to study and compare the three paintings in detail.   


The RMG Armada Portrait, which was previously owned by descendants of Sir Francis Drake, was saved for the nation in 2016 as the result of a major appeal mounted by Art Fund and Royal Museums Greenwich that raised £10.3 million, including £7.4 million from The National Lottery Heritage Fund thanks to money raised by National Lottery players, a £1 million Art Fund grant as well as other major grants. The public appeal attracted 8,000 individual donations amounting to £1.5 million.


Once acquired for the national collection, the portrait underwent complex and comprehensive conservation work in which several layers of old varnish were removed, more fully revealing the painting’s intricate detail and vibrant colours. Paint analysis suggested that the seascapes in RMG’s version of the Armada Portrait were painted over in the early 18th century, with the original versions still underneath sharing similarities to those featured within the Woburn Abbey portrait. The Woburn Abbey portrait remains the only version of the three that maintains the complete seascapes as they were painted in the 16th century.

The NPG version came into public ownership in 1765 when it was presented to the British Museum by David Steuart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchanan. It was transferred to the National Portrait Gallery collection in 1879.


Woburn Abbey’s Armada Portrait is part of the private collection owned by the Trustees of the Bedford Estate and has been in the family for centuries. It is uncertain how the portrait entered the collection, with suggestions that it may have been gifted to the 2nd Earl of Bedford’s daughter, Ann of Warwick, or the 3rd Earl’s Countess, Lucy Harington, both contemporaries of Elizabeth I. There is also a possibility that the painting was acquired in the 18th century.


The historic loan is one of several works that will be coming to the Queen’s House in February 2020 as part of Woburn Treasures (13 February 2020 – 17 January 2021), a major collaboration between Woburn Abbey and the Queen’s House. The collaboration will see a selection of artworks from the private collection of The Duke and Duchess of Bedford by artists such as Van Dyck, Reynolds, Poussin and Canaletto on display alongside significant pieces from the collection of Royal Museums Greenwich.  


Faces of a Queen: The Armada Portraits of Elizabeth I will be open from 13 February – 31 August 2020 at the Queen’s House in Greenwich and is free to visit. For more information, visit     


Exhibition information for visitors:

Venue:                        The Queen’s House, Royal Museums Greenwich

Dates:                         13 February 2020 – 31 August 2020

Opening times:          every day*, 10.00 – 17.00 (closed 24–26 December)

                                    *check for any planned closures

Visitor enquiries:      020 8858 4422  

Admission:                 Free


Twitter:                      @RMGreenwich #QueensHouse #Armadaportrait

Instagram:                 @royalmuseumsgreenwich #QueensHouse #Armadaportrait

Facebook:                  /royalmuseumsgreenwich




Notes to editors

  1. The 17th century Queen’s House, designed by Inigo Jones, was the first Classical building in England – it is known for its perfectly proportioned Great Hall, original marble floor and beautiful Tulip staircase. Part of Royal Museums Greenwich, the Queen’s House has Scheduled Monument status as it is a building of unique architectural importance and forms an important part of the UNESCO Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site.  Visitors to the Queen’s House can see highlights from the National Maritime Museum’s fine art collection, including: famous portraits of Elizabeth I and James Duke of York; and exquisite examples of the work of the van de Veldes.
  1. The Queen’s House is part of Royal Museums Greenwich which also incorporates the National Maritime Museum, the Royal Observatory Greenwich and Cutty Sark. This unique collection of museums and heritage buildings, which form a key part of the Maritime Greenwich UNESCO World Heritage Site, welcomes over two and a half million British and international visitors a year and is also a major centre of education and research. The mission of Royal Museums Greenwich is to enrich people’s understanding of the sea, the exploration of space, and Britain's role in world history. For more information visit
  1. National Portrait Gallery, London Founded in 1856, the aim of the National Portrait Gallery, London is ‘to promote through the medium of portraits the appreciation and understanding of the men and women who have made and are making British history and culture, and ... to promote the appreciation and understanding of portraiture in all media’. The Gallery holds the most extensive collection of portraits in the world. With over 1000 portraits on display across three floors, from Elizabeth I to David Beckham, the Gallery has something for everyone. Artists featured range from Holbein to Hockney, and the Collection includes work across all media, from painting and sculpture to photography and video. As well as the permanent displays, the Gallery has a diverse and ever-changing programme of exhibitions and events that promote an understanding and appreciation of portraiture in all forms. @NPGLondon
  1. About The National Lottery Heritage Fund Using money raised by the National Lottery, we Inspire, lead and resource the UK’s heritage to create positive and lasting change for people and communities, now and in the future. Follow @HeritageFundUK on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram and use #NationalLotteryHeritageFund 
  1. Art Fund is the national fundraising charity for art. In the past five years alone Art Fund has given £34 million to help museums and galleries acquire works of art for their collections. It also encourages museums to share their collections with wider audiences by supporting a range of tours and exhibitions, and makes additional grants to support the training and professional development of curators. Art Fund is independently funded, with the core of its income provided by 151,000 members who receive the National Art Pass and enjoy free entry to over 240 museums, galleries and historic places across the UK, as well as 50% off entry to major exhibitions and subscription to Art Quarterly magazine. In addition to grant-giving, Art Fund’s support for museums includes Art Fund Museum of the Year (won by St Fagans National Museum of History, Cardiff in 2019) and a range of digital platforms.
  1. From 13 February 2020 – 17 January 2021, the Queen’s House in Greenwich, in partnership with Woburn Abbey, will open Woburn Treasures, a major collaboration which will see significant works from the private art collection of The Duke and Duchess of Bedford on show for free in the Queen’s House. Considered to be one of the most important art collections still in private hands, with works by distinguished artists such as Van Dyck, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Poussin and Canaletto, the collaboration marks the first time significant collection pieces have been on public display in a national museum since the 1950s.
  1. From April 2020, Royal Museums Greenwich will host a major exhibition exploring royal portraiture in a unique collaboration with London’s National Portrait Gallery. Tudors to Windsors: British Royal Portraits will give visitors the opportunity to come face-to-face with the kings, queens and their heirs who have shaped British history and were so central to Greenwich. The exhibition will include over 150 works and consider the development of royal portraiture over 500 years – as statements of wealth, power, continuity and tradition – and how they were impacted by both the personalities of individual monarchs and wider historical change.


For further information or images, please contact:

Sarah Sandall, Royal Museums Greenwich Press Office

Tel: 020 8312 6789 | 07960 509 802 or Email